But art historian Peter Lawrence BAKER, of Canada, suggests that his father was not named CASTIGLIONE, and may instead have been an artist from Firenze - and that his mother may have been "...a woman of enormous wealth and power" by whom Giovanni, although probably illegitimate, was nevertheless "...of very noble birth."
It appears that some evidence may exist to suggest that this woman could have been Margaret (1480-1530), daughter of Maximilian, the Holy Roman Emperor, by his wife Mary of Burgundy, and so a sister of Philip the Handsome of Castile, and the widow of John, Prince of Asturias (married 1497), then of Philibert II, Duke of Savoy (married 1501); she also being known as the Archduchess of Austria, the Dowager Duchess of Savoy, and the ruler of the Hapsburg Netherlands (1507-1515 & 1519 till death).
Interestingly, Baldassare CASTIGLIONE dedicated his book, "Il Libro del Courtigiano," to Margaret of Austria.
SOME "EXTRA-CURRICULAR" ACTIVITIES.
THE DISPUTED RECTORY MANOR OF GODALMING.
However, this arrangement may have gone back some years earlier - Percy WOODS, in his article "The Parsonage, or Rectory Manor of Godalming, &c," published in 1909 in Vol.XXII of the Surrey Archaeological Collection, wrote as follows:
"...the Parsonage must have come into the possession of one John Baptist CASTILLION, who was the Lord of the Rectory Manor at least as early as 1576, and who had obtained a lease from Dean VANNES, dated 26 June 1561, for 61 years commencing at the Lady day next after the determination of the previous leases."
But there is some lack of clarity about the actual arrangements of this lease - firstly the status of the "previous leases" made it difficult to know when the term of VANNES's lease actually commenced - and it appears that there may have been two separate "ecclesiastical" dwellings in Godalming, the Rectory house and the Parsonage house, the latter probably the older of the two, and was "...a small building used sometimes as a dwelling house and sometimes to lay corn in."
It appears this latter one was the subject of CASTILLION's lease, and that he probably demolished it, and built a new one on the same site, north of the Godalming churchyard, on the southern bank of the River Wye, notwithstanding the possibility that his lease term may not then have actually commenced.
TAYLOR, a graduate of Trinity College, Cambridge (B.A. 1567, M.A. 1570), had been Master of Guildford Grammar School from 1570 until his appointment at Godalming; he died in 1619.
The erstwhile "patron" of the living, Sir William MORE, of Loseley, Surrey, was also involved in the dispute.
(John) Baptiste CASTILLION, at Westminster, wrote to MORE on 11 September 1578, the letter being abstracted by the Historical Manuscripts Commission [Appendix to the 7th Report, 1879, pp. 631-2] as follows:
"He sends his signed presentation of Mr TAYLOR to the living of Godalming at MORE's request and trusts that '...by his Godly preaching he shall do the town much good.' The presentation is not to be '...prejudicial to the right I have to the house where now the vicar doth dwell' and to the tithes, which right CASTILLION means to prove at law unless the vicar demonstrates his title."
CASTILLION, at the Court, wrote again to MORE on 22 October 1578 [HMC, App, p.632b]:
"The Dean [of Salisbury] '...upon payment of his rent for Godalming' requested of CASTILLION that he should have the presentation of the vicarage. CASTILLION asked for more time to consider and now '...cannot but marvel at this kind of dealing.' CASTILLION, having presented Mr TAYLOR to the vicarage of Godalming at MORE's request, hopes that the matter can be settled so that TAYLOR is not disturbed, but his own title under his lease is acknowledged. He encloses a letter for the Dean and hopes the latter will proceed no further, but wait for CASTILLION's reply."
What appears to be a second abstraction of this letter, with slightly different emphases, but dated 24 November 1578, is held at the Surrey History Centre [TNA Ref - 6729/7/55/1], as follows:
"He has received MORE's letter, but feels he cannot yet answer it as his 'learned counsel' has left London. Understanding that Mr TAYLOR is not resident at Godalming because he lacks a house, CASTILLION will lend him part of the house he has '...of Mr SMYTH.' If TAYLOR can prove his right to the [vicarage] at law, CASTILLION will gladly give it up. He wishes to do TAYLOR no wrong, but must defend himself against the Bishop of Winchester, Dean of Salisbury and town of Godalming if attacked."
CASTILLION wrote, again from the Court, again to MORE, on 26 November 1578 [6729/7/55/2]:
"He thanks MORE for his offer to show him a rental, but does not believe that '...a rental can be a sufficient proof that the house doth appertain to your vicar.' However he will concede if the vicar can prove his title at law. He offers the vicar a part of Mr SMYTH's house so he can reside in Godalming and asks MORE to assure TAYLOR [the vicar] that CASTILLION will answer all the legal costs in the dispute with the Dean [of Salisbury] so TAYLOR can '...follow earnestly his vocation.' He chides the townspeople of Godalming for meddling in the case. He hears that Richard SMYTH is occupying the house 'for Mr GRAFTON' [the former vicar] and asks MORE to get him removed."
The dispute did not go away in a hurry - Sir William MORE, at Loseley, wrote to Charles, Lord HOWARD of Effingham, Lord Chamberlain & Privy Councillor [6729/7/73], on 2 March 1584:
"He reports that he has interviewed the present and past Churchwardens and others of Godalming who had complained to the justices of the '...lewd behaviour of Simon BOYES, Mr Baptiste's man' [Baptiste CASTILLION]. They have confirmed the accusations. Also present was the vicar Mr TAYLOR '...a very grave man, a good preacher, against whom the said Simon had very naughtily and disorderly used himself.' BOYES had confessed, '...acknowledged the words spoken by his master, but said they slipped out of his mouth unawares.' and admitted that he had falsely accused Robert BRIDGER and CHENNELL of being '...the procurer and deviser of the said information against him.' The accusers are happy to let the matter drop if BOYES does not offend again before the next Quarter Sessions..."
CASTILLION evidently retained the Advowson, which he is said to have granted to his 3rd son Peter on the occasion of his marriage, in about 1595, to Thomasine PEYTON, probably just a year or two before his death.
It was eventually the inheritance of Giovanni's Irish-born grandson, Peyton CASTILLION (see his will abstract, below), but it appears that Thomasin exercised some rights as the widow, and her longevity may have denied Peyton access to the benefits.
However, there appears to have been some legal action ("pleadings") taken in the Court of Chancery by Sir Robert PIGOTT and his 2nd wife Thomasin PIGOTT alias CASTILLION alias PEYTON (the plaintiffs), against her former brothers-in-law Sir Francis & Valentine CASTILLION (the defendants), pertaining to the "Rectory & Tithes of Godalming, Surrey," with a date range of 1603-25 [TNA Ref - C 2/Jas1/P5/17].
A copy of this archived document (held in the Surrey History centre) has been requested from The National Archives, and is eagerly awaited.
And it may help to explain how Henry CASTILLION, yet another of Giovanni's sons, made mention, in his will (proved P.C.C., 19 November 1646), of "...my annuity of £20 by the year to be paid out of the Parsonage of Godalming" - perhaps the feeoffment by Giovanni was to be shared by Peter with one or more of his brothers.
HIS FINAL YEARS.
On 15 May 1583, John Baptist CASTILLION Esq, & his wife Margaret, "...widow of Lazarus ALLEN," were involved in a legal disputation against Sir Christopher ALLEN & Roger GRAVES, "... concerning an annuity of £20 out of the estates in Lincs, Notts, Yorks, Kent & Herefords, of Sir John ALLEN, late Alderman of London."
i. Margaret SPIER, the wife of William SELLON.
ii. Barbara SPIER.
iii. Mary SPIER, baptised at Spene Church, 20 June 1636.
b. Elizabeth CASTILLION, baptised at Spene Church, 28 August 1602; married at Spene Church, 10 September 1635, Nicholas LAMY, a French Physician, of Basingstoke; issue 2 daughters:
i. Elizabeth LAMY, baptised at Buxted, Sussex, 8 August 1641.
ii. Joan LAMY, baptised at Buxted, Sussex, 14 January 1643.
c. Thomas CASTILLION, baptised at Spene Church, 29 December 1603, the day after his mother's death; admitted Middle Temple, 1623; of Benham Valence; will dated February 1654, proved P.C.C., April 1656; married 10 July 1632, Elizabeth NELSON (daughter of Thomas NELSON of Chaddlesworth, Berkshire, by Mary DUCKETT); she was still living in July 1664; issue:
i. Francis CASTILLION, baptised at Spene, 28 August 1633; Middle Temple, 3 February 1656; Rector of Welton-le-Wold, Lincolnshire, 6 June 1663; Vicar of Louth, Lincolnshire, 1666; buried at Louth, 14 March 1667-68; married at St Mary's, Speen, 17 November 1656, Margaret BARKER (daughter of Hugh BARKER, Doctor of Medicine, of Newbury, Berkshire, by Mary JONES); she died at Louth, Lincs, March 1712, aged 75; with issue - sons Thomas CASTILLION (1659-1687) & Francis CASTILLION (1665-1691), & a daughter Elizabeth CASTILLION (born Welton-le-Wold, 1666; apprenticed in 1681 to Joseph STURT, Milliner; she married Charles HOLLOWAY, Citizen & Goldsmith of London; he died 1700, with issue an only daughter Elizabeth HOLLOWAY surviving).
Margaret married 2ndly, ca July 1671, Charles CRACROFT (he died at Louth, September 1701, aged 70); with further issue.
ii. Thomas CASTILLION, baptised at Chaddlesworth, 24 or 26 August 1635, living 1664.
iii. Humphrey CASTILLION, baptised at Chaddlesworth, 1 November 1637; mentioned his brother John's will, July 1664; Citizen & Apothecary of London, will dated September 1664 & proved May 1669.
iv. Peter CASTILLION, baptised at Chaddlesworth, 17 February 1638-39; Vicar of Dinton, Wiltshire; named in his brother John's will, July 1664; he married Alice, with issue; she may have been the Mrs Alice CASTILLION buried at the Parish Church of St Andrew, Cobham, Surrey, on 29 January 1708-09, "...the mother of John CLARK's wife, at the George Inn" and at whose funeral was delivered a sermon.
v. John CASTILLION, baptised at Chaddlesworth, 14 March 1640-41; Merchant of London, when he made his will, dated 11 July 1664, mentioning his mother Elizabeth, and brothers Humphrey, Peter, Thomas, Valentine and Richard.
vi. Valentine CASTILLION, baptised at Chaddlesworth, 19 July 1646; mentioned in his brother John's will, July 1664; Citizen & Grocer of London; living 1679.
vii. Mary CASTILLION, baptised at Chaddlesworth, 27 December 1648; married in London, 26 February 1673, Miles Arnold BLACK, with issue.
viii. Richard CASTILLION, baptised at Chaddlesworth, 28 February 1651; mentioned in his brother John's will, July 1664; Citizen & Distiller of London, will dated June 1679, proved July 1679.
Valentine went to Godalming, Surrey; he & his wife Mary levied, in 1627, "...a fine of the Godalming Rectory and a large acreage of land, &c, in Godalming, Guildford & Witley, and the tithes of corn, &c, in the parish of Godalming, to Lawrence HYDE, Esq, & others, presumably as trustees, for 60 years from the previous Lady Day" [Surrey Archaeological Collection, Vol. XXII, 1909, "The Parsonage or Rectory Manor of Godalming," by Percy WOODS, p. 121]; his will dated 16 September 1640; buried at the Parish church of Sts Peter & Paul, Godalming, 3 July 1641; will proved Archdeaconry Court of Surrey, 3 November 1641.
Valentine married 1stly, Miss CALTON; he married 2ndly, at St Peter ad Vincula, Tower of London, on 30 November 1607, Eleanor PYATT; & he married 3rdly, Mary, who survived as his widow; probably her will, dated 24 July 1649, proved P.C.C., 13 February 1649-50.
i. Peter LEIGH, b 30 April 1615, died unm.
ii. Richard LEIGH, died 12 August 1670, s.p.
iii. Thomas LEIGH, of West Hall, High Leigh, buried 22 June 1767; married 1660, Mary AUSTIN.
iv. Samuel LEIGH.
v. Edmund LEIGH.
vi. William LEIGH.
vii. James LEIGH.
viii; Elizabeth LEIGH.
c. Anne (II) LEIGH, born ca 1606; married Thomas COOPER of Ewborne.
d. Mary LEIGH.
a. Robert HYDE, eldest son.
b. Lawrence HYDE, 2nd son.
c. Henry HYDE, 3rd son.
d. Hamlet HYDE, 4th son.
e. Valentine HYDE.
f. Margaret HYDE.
g. Ann HYDE.
h Elizabeth HYDE, bapt Salisbury Cathedral, 8 June 1595.
7. Peter CASTYLYON, baptised at St Margaret's, 25 November 1569; a Captain in Queen Elizabeth's Army in Ireland, & possibly also in the service of Sir William FITZWILLIAM, Lord Deputy of Ireland; probably died at Moyry Pass, Ireland's "Gap of the North," 5 October 1600; married ca 1595, Thomasine PEYTON, daughter of Christopher PEYTON (died Dublin, 1612), Auditor in Ireland, by his 1st wife Anne PALMER; issue:
Catherine GILBERT's daughter Anne GILBERT became the wife of Sir Robert's grandson & heir apparent, Robert PIGOTT (killed at Fort Maryborough, September 1646, the eldest son of Sir Robert's heir John PIGOTT of Dysart, by Martha COLCLOUGH - see his separate blog), & by him ancestor of the continuing line of PIGOTTs of Dysart, including Captain John PIGOTT of Antigua, Dublin & Stradbally (see his separate blog).
8. Walter Baptyste CASTILYON, baptised at St Margaret's, 24 December 1570; slain in Ireland, probably before 1597, in the service of Sir Richard BINGHAM.
9. Douglasse CASTILION, baptised at St Margaret's, 3 June 1573; M.A. Oxon, 1599; Fellow of Magdalen College; Rector of Stratford Tony, Wiltshire, 1619; died 18 January 1659; married at Salisbury Cathedral, 17 April 1611, Margaret BOWER, with issue 6 sons & 4 daughters, including:
a. Richard CASTILLION, baptised at Stratford Toney, 27 December 1613; at Godalming, Surrey, 1697; married at St Martin-in-the-Fields, London, 16 November 1635, Katherine SPEIR; issue:
i. Douglas CASTILLION, baptised London, 1 September 1636; probably buried at Sts Peter & Paul, Godalming, 19 May 1707; married with issue.
ii. Katherine CASTILLION, baptised at Newington, Surrey, 18 June 1637; possibly the wife of Nicholas WILKINS.
iii. Richard CASTILLION, baptised at Godalming, 30 June 1642.
iv. Margaret CASTILLION, baptised at Godalming, 17 November 1647.
v. Rodolph CASTILLION, baptised at Godalming, 29 November 1648; married Frances, with issue.
vi. Elizabeth CASTILLION, baptised at Godalming, 29 June 1651; probably married at Godalming, 14 February 1675, John ELINGE.
vii. John CASTILLION, baptised at Godalming, 27 April 1657.
b. John CASTILLION, born ca 1614; Christ Church College, Oxon; D.D., 1660; Dean of Rochester, 15 November 1676; died at Canterbury, 21 October 1688, & buried in Canterbury Cathedral (lower South Cross, with M.I.); married at St Mary Savoy, London, 27 November 1666, Margaret DIGGES; she died at Canterbury, 21 July 1716, & buried with her husband, aged 80; issue:
i. Mary CASTILLION, baptised at Canterbury Cathedral, 16 September 1669.
ii. Thomas CASTILLION, baptised at Canterbury Cathedral, 2 November 1671.
c. Anne CASTILLION; married at Salisbury St Thomas, 6 May 1652, Edward DRAKE of Colyton, Devonshire; issue:
i. Anne DRAKE, born 20 March 1654, & baptised at Bletchingly, Surrey, 12 March 1655.
10. Barbara CASTILION, baptised at St Margaret's, 16 September 1574; died 24 August 1641, & was buried in Salisbury Cathedral; she married at Wiltshire, 7 June 1590, Laurence HYDE of Heale House, near Salisbury, Councillor, Middle Temple (& a brother of Robert HYDE, his wife's brother-in-law); he died at Salisbury, 26 January 1641[?-42]; issue 17 children, including:
a. Laurence HYDE, born at Salisbury, 10 November 1593; Magdalen College, Oxon, B.A. 1612; M.P. for Hindon, 1624, 1628; inherited Heale from his father, 1642; died 3 December 1643; married 1stly, 1 December 1619, Amphillis TICHBORNE; she died 24 February 1632; issue:
i. Robert HYDE; died before reaching his majority, whereupon Heale went to his uncle Robert HYDE.
ii. Amphillis HYDE; married Thomas CHAFIN, M.P.
iii. Helen HYDE; married Sir John LOWE, M.P.
Laurence married 2ndly, at Abbots Ann, Hampshire, 24 April 1640, Katherine HYDE, daughter of Thomas HYDE; she died in 1661.
b. Robert HYDE, born at Salisbury, 24 February 1595; called to the Bar, Middle Temple, February 1617; Recorder of Salisbury, 1638; Sarjeant-at-Law, May 1640; M.P. for Salisbury in the long Parliament; inherited Heale from his nephew; joined King Charles at Oxford, & was deprived of his seat in Parliament, & of his recordership; restored by Charles II; Chief Justice of the King's Bench, October 1663; died 2 August 1665; married Mary BABER, daughter of Francis BABER of Chew Magna; s.p.
c. William HYDE, born at Salisbury, 17 January 1596; died 24 March 1630.
d. Alexander HYDE, born at Salisbury, 30 April 1598; New College, Oxon; D.C.L., 1632; Rector of Wylye, Wiltshire, 1634; Sub-dean of Salisbury, 1637; a staunch Loyalist, & was deprived of his livings by Parliament under the Commonwealth; restored by Charles II; Dean of Winchester, 1660; Bishop of Salisbury, December 1665; died in London, 22 August 1667; married Mary TOUNSON; with issue:
i. Laurence HYDE, born at Wylye, Wiltshire, 12 October 1641.
ii. Margaret HYDE, born at Wylye, 26 May 1649.
ii. Robert HYDE, born at Wylye, 10 October 1650.
iii. Barbara HYDE, born at Wylye, 20 November 1651.
iv. Anne HYDE.
v. Mary HYDE.
e. Celina HYDE., born at Salisbury, 1599; died 1599.
f. Barbara HYDE, born Salisbury, 1603; died 1608.
g. Margaret HYDE, born Salisbury, 1605.
h. Henry HYDE, born at Salisbury, 12 May 1606; a Royalist Merchant & Consul to Turkey; selected by Charles in exile as his envoy to Turkey, but was arrested under pressure from the Parliamentarian Ambassador there, & sent back to England, where he was tried on a charge of treason; executed at Cornhill, London, on 4 March 1650.
j. Edward HYDE, born at Salisbury, 16 May 1607; D.D.; Rector of Brightwell, Berkshire; died 20 October 1661; married Anne LAMBERT; issue:
i. Margaret HYDE; married William HEARST.
ii. Ann HYDE; married 11 July 1661, Richard COLMAN (born ca 1633, son of Sir Edward COLMAN of Brent Eleigh Hall, Suffolk, by his wife Dionise HALE); Trinity College, Cantab, 1648; Lincoln's Inn, 1650; called to the Bar, 1657; he was M.P. for Salisbury, 1665-1672; he died 13 October 1672, aged 40, & was buried at Brent Eleigh; issue - 4 sons & 1 daughter.
k. Hamlett HYDE, born at Salisbury, 1610.
l. Nicholas HYDE, born Salisbury, 20 April 1611.
m. Frederick HYDE, born at Salisbury, 20 July 1614; died 1677
n. James HYDE, born at Salisbury, 15 May 1617; died 7 May 1681.
p. Charles HYDE, born at Salisbury, 24 April 1619; died 1619.
11. Selina CASTILION, baptised at St Margaret's, 29 January 1576; married Robert CHENEY of West Woodhey, Berkshire (son of Thomas CHENEY of Woodhey, Berkshire, by his 2nd wife Ann SCOTT of Mote, County Sussex); they had issue (as named in the 1632 "Visitations of Berkshire"):
a. Henry CHENEY.
b. John CHENEY.
c. Barbara CHENEY.
d. Mary CHENEY.
12. Henry Baptiste CASTILION, baptised at St Margaret's, 25 January 1580; of Lindhurst, Surrey, will proved P.C.C., 19 November 1646; married Margaret CASTILLION; she survived him & proved his will as the relict; with issue:
a. Henry CASTILLION.
b. Elizabeth CASTILLION.
d. (daughter); married POCOCKE, with issue:
i. John POCOCKE; named in his grandfather's will, 1646.
e. (daughter); perhaps Elizabeth above; married Edward BRIGHT; he witnessed his father-in-law's will, 1646.
GIOVANNI'S DEATH & BURIAL.
John Baptist CASTILLION died 12 February 1597-98, probably in London, & was buried 17 March inside the Parish Church of St Mary, Spene, near Newbury, Berkshire.
Burial was attended by his son & heir Francis CASTILLION as chief mourner; sons Valentine & Douglas (who bore the penant) CASTILLION & John LEIGH as assistant mourners; Dr HARDING the preacher; William CAMDEN, Clarenceaux, bearing the Coat-of-Arms; & Samuel THOMPSON, Portcullis, bearing the Helmet & Crest.
He was laid to rest in the family aisle, under an ornate altar tomb in the Italianate style of architecture, on which still lies his recumbent life-sized effigy, represented in armour, with a vest of chain mail under, hands pressed together in devotional attitude, his head resting on his helmet, ornamented with medallions bearing the Rose en Soleil, & the feet on his mutilated crest - A salamander's head Vert, issuing from flames & breathing flames, all Proper.
On the ledge of the tomb is inscribed -"Hic jacet Jo Baptist CASTILLION Armiger Quondam Dominus de Benham in Comitatu Berk Qui obiit Xii Febr A Dni 1597." Around the side of the tomb are the family Coats-of-Arms & impalements of CASTIGLIONE:CAMPAGNI & their issue.
No will for Giovanni has yet been located in English records.
Giovanni's ornate tomb has since been relocated, and now stands adjacent to the south wall of the 1859 enlargement of the original church (see photo above), which was built annexed to the southern side; this area has now been set apart for use as a meeting & small concert area; the now smaller congregation being catered for back in the original part of the church, due east of the spire.
The full version of Sir Francis CASTILLION's proposed epitaph, written by another hand, is as follows:
[Francis CASTILLION, his Letterbook - Osborne Shelves, Beinecke Rare Book & MS Library, Yale University.]
SOME OLD CASTIGLIONE CORRESPONDENCE.
Giovanni's eldest son and heir,Sir Francis CASTILLION, kept a letter book, which is now in the holdings of the Bienecke Rare Book & Manuscript Library at Yale University.
One of the letters is a copy of one written by his father Giovanni in March 1581, addressed to the Duke of Savoy, some 20 years before he was married to Margaret of Austria:
Another is purported to be a letter under the hand of Queen Elizabeth:
Another is from Francis CASTILION, dated July 1609, and addressed to his supposed relation, Count Baldassare CASTIGLIONE in Mantua, and his reply of December 1610:
My Italian is non-existent. Assitnce with old handwriting and possible old Italian (Lombardy) dialect would be most welcomed.
CASTIGLIONE ORIGINS IN ITALY - OLONA IN VARESE, LOMBARDIA.
Giovanni's ancestral origins take him back to the Holy Roman Emperor Charlemagne (742-814), whose gtx4-grandson was Corrado (or Conrad), the son of Berenguar II (joint King of Italy, 950-961) by his wife Willa (daur of Boso, Marchese di Toscana & Count of Arles).
Corrado was the 1st Lord of Castiglione, and established his seat at Olona, ca 1000; this fortified dwelling overlooked the Olona River, about 18 km S.S.W of Como, and just to the south of the present town of Castiglione Olona.
The estate was destoyed by Ottone VISCONTI in 1280, when Corrado's gtx4 grandson Guido (II) was in occupation, his father Corrado (II) having died in that same year.
It was not rebuilt again until the early 1400s, by Cristoforo CASTIGLIONE (1345-1425).
Image courtesy of the www.comune.castiglione-olona.va.it web-site.]
CASATICO, NEAR MANTOVA, LOMBARDIA.
Cristoforo CASTIGLIONE was a renowned lawyer in Milano & Parma; he married Antonia di BAGGI, & by her had a son Baldassar CASTIGLIONE, born 14 January 1414, & died in 1478, having married Pollisena LISCA, and by her dowry purchased an extensive estate at Casatico, about 19 km due west of Mantua, where he constructed another stately CASTIGLIONE mansion, most of which still exists today.
GASSINO, NEAR TORINO, PIEMONTE.
Baldassar & Polissena had a younger son Baldassare (II) CASTIGLIONE, who was father, by his wife Katherina (daur of the Marchese di Malaspina) of Piero CASTIGLIONE, a Captain in the Army of Maximillian, Holy Roman Emperor, & who established himself at Castiglione Alto, near Gassino, in Piemonte, where our Giovanni Battista was probably born, ca 1516.